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Elga, I see this differently. Of course, when Lakoff wrote that article in December 1990, people were seeing things differently, and the analysis of the manipulation depended very much on how the "Kuwait issue" was treated. People were presented with an image of a big country with the fourth largest army in the world (sic), threatening a small and innocent state and occupying it... No one told the people the history of the crisis or its origins, just like everyone is today presented with the same lies regarding Iraq's history and its "creation" by the British.. In retrospect, it would seem that Lakoff did not perhaps tackle the issue of the inventions and fabrications as he should have been. But at that time, no one knew that the incubator story was a fabrication, or that the images of the oil pollution attributed to Iraq in the waters of the Gulf was another fabrication… It was only after the end of the aggression that the truth began to come out… So I tend to believe that Lakoff did not intend to analyze the propaganda campaign, rather the way Metaphorical thought, which as he said is "neither good nor bad" was used to manipulate. He does argue the need to understand how this metaphorical thought was used to bring the world to the war and gives examples of its use. But like I said, there was not enough information available at that time to understand how deep and complicated the whole campaign was. The current aggression is a very good example. People in the West, protected by the fact that they only follow CNN, Fox or the BBC, do not see the other side of issues. Thus, the majority of those people, especially in the US and UK still believe that those Iraqi civilians were killed by Iraqi missiles or that they were killed by mistake; that Iraqi soldiers are disguising in civilians clothes (to justify arresting civilians); and the rest of lies and fabrications. If one were to follow news from other satellite channels in Arabic, where reporters give live reports and images from Iraq, one would see a different story altogether. So the propaganda campaign has only succeeded in the US and UK because people still trust the authorities, even after their lies are exposed. In the Arab world, where people DO NOT trust the authorities, the story is different!! How would one explain the continuing support for Blair's claims in the UK, when one report was a copy and the other was a forgery?? Today, the US claimed its tanks were in the centre of Baghdad, when all reporters, including those of Reuters and AFP, in Baghdad, said this was not true... First they said they were there to stay. When Iraq said that was a lie, they said they only went in "briefly"... I posted Lakoff's articles only to give an idea of the similarity of the propaganda campaign of 1991 and now. Even some of the terminology is the same… Hassan __________________________________________________ Do you Yahoo!? Yahoo! Tax Center - File online, calculators, forms, and more http://tax.yahoo.com _______________________________________________ Sent via the discussion list of the Campaign Against Sanctions on Iraq. To unsubscribe, visit http://lists.casi.org.uk/mailman/listinfo/casi-discuss To contact the list manager, email email@example.com All postings are archived on CASI's website: http://www.casi.org.uk