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Yes, Hassan, these articles by Lakoff are very interesting. But it seems to me that he is trying to give the impression that this just _happened_. He says, for example: "Metaphorical thought, in itself, is neither good nor bad; it is simply commonplace and inescapable. [...] Indeed, there is an extensive, and mostly unconscious, system of metaphor that we use automatically..." Ok, this is true in normal life, but this was a propaganda campaign leading up to the 1991 attack. And the Bush Admin was trying to fool the whole world, not only its own citizens. So these metaphors, ie, vilification were manufactured quite deliberately. Again, Lakoff: "Saddam Hussein was painted as a Hitler." (There is a word for this in German: 'Feinbild' (literally, image of the enemy, ie, concept of the enemy). It is created deliberately as a propaganda tool. Lakoff: "It is vital, literally vital, to understand just what role metaphorical thought played in bringing us in this war." >From the accounts I've read, it was orchestrated - and was planned even before the Kuwait invasion. Here is a translation from an analysis of the German press coverage during the Gulf War. (Apparently, it just mirrored US propaganda, as it does now.) The authors claim that the slogan "Never again war, never again fascism" was used in reverse in a "disinformation campaign" against Iraq: <start quote> By equating Saddam Hussein with Adolf Hitler, the catch-phrase "Never again war, never again fascism" was turned upside down and used to legitimize the Gulf War. The reversed formula "Never again fascism, therefore war" was then spread about to generate the fear that history might repeat itself. For several reasons, the public was effectively prevented from forming a definite opinion on the [impending] war: there was no clear-cut information about the cause and the origin of the conflict; comments on the motives of the US were contradictory; and efforts to resolve the conflict by non-military means were excluded from public discourse. <end quote> And during the war: <start quote> The Geneva Convention was often referred to by the [US] media, but only if it could be used to build up the _Feindbild_ 'Saddam' and to justify the escalation of the attacks against Iraq. <end quote> This is just a different perspective - I can't judge if it's valid or not. And apparently a lot of (US?) propaganda lies were put out to discourage peace demonstrations in Germany. School children who demonstrated in masses were called 'anti-American', antisemitic, etc. The more things change... Elga _______________________________________________ Sent via the discussion list of the Campaign Against Sanctions on Iraq. To unsubscribe, visit http://lists.casi.org.uk/mailman/listinfo/casi-discuss To contact the list manager, email firstname.lastname@example.org All postings are archived on CASI's website: http://www.casi.org.uk