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U.S. Mulls 4-Month Delay in Iraqi 'Smart Sanctions' (Reuters)

A. U.S. Mulls 4-Month Delay in Iraqi 'Smart Sanctions', 27th November,
Reuters [latest on 'smart' sanctions]
B. Next Target in Terror War: Bush Says It Could Be Iraq, New York Times,
November 26th
C. Anthrax Type That Killed May Have Reached Iraq Baghdad's Bid to Obtain
Microbe Fuels Suspicions, Washington Post, November 25th
D. Iraq's Weapons Could Make It a Target, Bush Says, Washington Post,
November 27, 2001


A. Tuesday November 27 2:02 AM ET

U.S. Mulls 4-Month Delay in Iraqi 'Smart Sanctions'
By Evelyn Leopold

UNITED NATIONS (Reuters) - Racing against the clock, the United States is
considering a four month delay on its proposals to ease the flow of civilian
goods to Iraq but tighten military supplies, diplomats said.

The current U.N. oil-for-food program, which contains the sanctions
regulations, expires on Friday with few signs Russia has dropped its
opposition to the type of ``smart sanctions'' proposals the United States

Consequently Washington on Monday proposed to key U.N. Security Council
members extending the current U.N. oil-for-food program until the end of
March, with the proviso the council commit themselves to a revision of the
embargoes by then, U.S. and other diplomats said.

But the envoys cautioned that Russia has not agreed to the dates contained
in the American proposals. Moscow's own suggestions, in an earlier paper,
called for a six month extension before it would ``consider new arrangements
for the sale or supply of commodities or products to Iraq.''

Iraq, which shut off oil supplies for a month last June until it was sure
Russia would reject the ``smart sanctions,'' wants no changes in the
oil-for-food program except to end the embargoes entirely. Its U.N.
ambassador, Mohammed Aldouri, said that an extension less than six months
was unacceptable.

Under the U.N.'s oil-for-food program, Iraq can sell oil and use the
proceeds to buy humanitarian supplies and repair the country's
infrastructure. But the United States and other Security Council members can
place holds on contracts for items they suspect are intended for the Iraqi

Britain, with U.S. support, last May submitted a resolution that seeks to
ease restrictions on civilian goods, retain bans on military hardware and
set down a list of ``dual use'' goods that can be used for both military and
civilian purposes. Other supplies can go through without council approval.

The proposed ``goods review list'' of dual use items that would require
council approval before they could be imported into Iraq already has been
considerably relaxed by the United States to obtain the support of China and

But Russia has not yet signed on, mainly because Iraq objects to anything
short of lifting the sanctions, imposed when its troops invaded Baghdad in
August 1990.

Secretary of State Colin Powell discussed the sanctions by telephone on
Monday with Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov of Russia, whose government blocked
the changes when the embargoes came up in the U.N. Security Council in June.

After those talks, John Negroponte, the U.S. ambassador to the United
Nations, and his Russian counterpart, Sergei Lavrov, met on the Iraqi
controversy in New York.

On the CNN program ``Larry King Live,'' Powell admitted it was a ``tough
issue'' but said he believed ``smart sanctions'' was the way to go.

``What we don't want to have go in are equipment that can be used for
developing weapons of mass destruction. We're not doing this just to protect
America, but to protect the region,'' Powell said on Monday.

He said the Russians also understood this but they had commercial interests
they wanted to protect. ``We have been working with the Russians to see if
we can find a compromise that would satisfy the need,'' he added.

At the same time, President Bush warned Iraqi President Saddam Hussein that
if he did not admit United Nations inspectors to determine if Iraq is
developing weapons of mass destruction, he would face consequences.

Bush did not spell out what those might be but said: ''He'll find out.''

Powell characterized Bush's words as ``a very sober, chilling message,''
adding: ``There are many options available to the international community
and to the president.''

So far, however, Russia and the United States disagree on the inspections.
Moscow wants sanctions suspended shortly after they are on the scene, a
position Washington rejects.

The Bush administration has been torn for months between conservatives who
want to oust President Saddam Hussein, by bombing if necessary, and those
who believe this would shatter any coalition against terrorism.


B. November 27, 2001

Next Target in Terror War: Bush Says It Could Be Iraq

WASHINGTON, Nov. 26  President Bush warned Saddam Hussein today that if he
did not admit United Nations inspectors to determine if Iraq is developing
nuclear, chemical or biological weapons, he would face consequences.

Mr. Bush declined for now to say what those might be. "He'll find out," Mr.
Bush said.

In issuing the threat, the president seemed to broaden his definition of
terrorism to include the development of weapons that would "terrorize
nations," a significant departure from the definition he used in an address
to Congress in September about the purpose of the war.

"If anybody harbors a terrorist, they're a terrorist," Mr. Bush said today.
"If they fund a terrorist, they're a terrorist. If they house terrorists,
they're terrorists. I mean, I can't make it any more clearly to other
nations around the world. If they develop weapons of mass destruction that
will be used to terrorize nations, they will be held accountable."

Secretary of State Colin L. Powell said tonight that Mr. Hussein should hear
Mr. Bush's words as "a very sober, chilling message." In an appearance on
CNN on "Larry King Live," Secretary Powell added, "There are many options
available to the international community and to the president."

Mr. Bush's remarks came as his administration continues an internal debate
over the next phase of the war, including whether it will undertake military
action to try to oust Mr. Hussein. Mr. Bush has been criticized by
conservative Republicans for not moving forcibly against Mr. Hussein, who
has been accused of plotting to assassinate Mr. Bush's father and whose
survival continues to torment Washington a decade after the Persian Gulf

For his part, Mr. Bush insisted that he had not widened the definition of
what his administration considers terrorism, even though he did not mention
weapons of mass destructions in his speech to Congress. "Have I expanded the
definition?" Mr. Bush said. "I've always had that definition, as far as I'm

Mr. Bush made his remarks in a question-and-answer session with reporters
after a ceremony in the White House Rose Garden welcoming two American
Christian relief workers who were rescued this month by American forces in

The president, whom one missionary, Heather Mercer, praised as "such a man
of God," repeated some of the same strong language that he first used last
week in a speech to cheering members of the 101st Airborne Division in Fort
Campbell, Ky.

"Afghanistan is still just the beginning" of the war on terrorism, Mr. Bush
said today, emphasizing that Americans would die there.

"It's going to happen," the president said. "I said this early on, as the
campaign began: America must be prepared for loss of life. I believe the
American people understand that we've got a mighty struggle on our hands and
that there will be sacrifice."

Mr. Bush added that "as for Mr. Hussein, he needs to let inspectors back in
his country, to show us that he is not developing weapons of mass

Other than this warning, the president gave no further hint of what course
the war might take should Osama bin Laden be captured or killed and his Al
Qaeda network be destroyed in Afghanistan.

Iraq is the most conspicuous example of a country that either has or is
suspected of developing nuclear, chemical or biological weapons, but it is
not the only one. Mr. Bush also said today, "We want North Korea to allow
inspectors in, to determine whether or not" North Korea is developing
nuclear weapons.

A showdown with North Korea in 1994 led the United States to reinforce its
troops on the peninsula. The crisis was partly resolved with an agreement
that froze the North's nuclear activity at one major site, but the Bush
administration suspects there are additional plants capable of producing
nuclear weapons.

The United States has also said it strongly suspects Iran, Libya and Syria
of developing biological weapons. In each of these cases, the White House
appears to be laying the groundwork for demanding international inspections.
What administration officials will do if the nations refuse is unclear.

Iraq has refused to admit inspectors since 1998, when the Clinton
administration and British forces responded with four nights of air and
missile strikes against more than 100 targets, including military
headquarters and air defenses. But Mr. Hussein remained in place.

During the the 2000 presidential campaign, Mr. Bush and his advisers pledged
to confront Mr. Hussein more aggressively than Mr. Clinton had.
Significantly, those advisers included Secretary Powell and Vice President
Dick Cheney, who had helped Mr. Bush's father oust Iraqi forces from Kuwait
in the gulf war in 1991.

In February of this year, barely a month in office, Mr. Bush ordered air
strikes with Britain against Iraqi radar stations and air-defense command
centers, calling the action a necessary response to Iraqi provocation.

Since Sept. 11, a group of administration hard-liners has argued that the
United States should move further against Iraq, but Secretary Powell has
said there is no evidence linking Mr. Hussein to the Sept. 11 attacks and
that the coalition against terrorism will not hold if Washington acts
against Iraq.

The secretary said on CNN tonight that he was working with Russia for a
compromise on what the administration calls "smart sanctions" against Iraq,
which are intended to let in civilian goods but not military ones.

"What we don't want to have go in, are equipment that can be used for
developing weapons of mass destruction," Secretary Powell said. "We're not
doing this just to protect America, but to protect the region."

Mr. Bush has so far seemed to endorse the views of Mr. Powell, and the
president said again today that he remained focused on the war in
Afghanistan. "We're going to make sure that we accomplish each mission that
we tackle," Mr. Bush said. "First things first."

Although Mr. Bush has been criticized by some conservatives for what they
consider his hesitation in dealing with Mr. Hussein, Senator John W. Warner
of Virginia, the ranking Republican on the Armed Services Committee, warned
today about opening up another front in the war.

"The principal focus should be on achieving the goals of this mission," Mr.
Warner said in a news conference on Capitol Hill. Before tackling terrorism
in a new country or region, Mr. Warner added, the administration should
conduct "a complete reassessment with regard to coalition support."


C. Anthrax Type That Killed May Have Reached Iraq
Baghdad's Bid to Obtain Microbe Fuels Suspicions

By Colum Lynch
Special to The Washington Post
Sunday, November 25, 2001; Page A12

UNITED NATIONS -- In August 1988, two key figures in Iraq's secret germ
warfare program attended a scientific conference in Winchester, England, to
survey advances in the battle against the anthrax disease.

Professor Nassir Hindawiand a colleague, Abdul Rahman Thamer,attracted
little attention at the gathering, which was sponsored by scientists from
the British biodefense institute at Porton Down.

But U.N. inspectors who uncovered Iraq's secret biological weapons years
later believe that the trip was part of a covert mission to identify foreign
suppliers for Baghdad's biological weapons program and to obtain deadly
anthrax microbes, including the Ames strain, a highly virulent anthrax
bacteria found in letters sent to American targets.

Shortly after the visit, Baghdad's trade ministry telexed an order to Porton
Down for samples of the Ames strain and at least two other varieties of
anthrax microbes. But the British scientists were suspicious that Baghdad
might be seeking to develop biological weapons. "There were requests for
anthrax strains, and they were denied," said Porton Down spokeswoman Sue

U.S. officials and former U.N. weapons experts have found no proof that the
Iraqi scientists obtained the Ames strain from another supplier. But Iraq's
attempt to obtain the Ames microbes has fueled suspicions among some U.S.
and U.N. experts that Iraq may yet be linked to the series of biological
attacks against the United States.

"We know that Iraq was very keen on obtaining that specific strain as well
as others, and they were contacting many countries of the world," said
retired Col. Richard Spertzel,a microbiologist and former head of biological
inspection teams in Iraq for the United Nations. "The effort with which they
[pursued] Porton Down would suggest that if they thought someone else had
it, they would press for it. But we simply don't know."

Porton Down scientists obtained the Ames strain in the early 1980s from the
U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) at
Fort Detrick, Md. The deadly pathogen has been passed to an unknown number
of scientists.

Iraq's unsuccessful attempt to secure the Ames bacteria from Britain
represented a minor setback in its largely successful campaign in the
mid-1980s to acquire ingredients for a massive covert biological weapons

Iraq sought materials from government and commercial labs in the United
States, Europe and Africa.

"The Iraqis had set up this very secret and very sophisticated procurement
system so that there would be no chance that outsiders could figure out what
they were doing," said Raymond Zalinskas,a former U.N. inspector who is now
senior scientist in residence at the Monterey Institute of International

In 1988, Iraqi scientists obtained from a private British business, Oxoid
Ltd., and other suppliers, nearly 40 tons of medium to grow anthrax and
botulinum bacterium for its biological weapons, according to former U.N.
officials and a 1999 U.N. report.

Iraq also acquired at least two other forms of anthrax, the Sterne strain,
commonly used in an animal vaccine, and the A-3 strain derived from Spanish
sheep, from France's Institut Pasteur.

"There was absolutely no reason to refuse an order from Iraq in the 1980s,"
said Michael Haynes, a spokesman for Unilever, the Anglo-Dutch consumer
goods giant that owned Oxoid until 1997. Haynes noted that Iraq at that time
was not considered hostile to the West and was under no economic sanctions.
"As far as we knew the growth medium would be used for genuine medical,
humanitarian purposes," he said.

U.N. inspectors got their first glimpse at Iraq's offensive biological
weapons program during an August 1991 U.N. inspection of Salman Pak, one of
Iraq's premier biological weapons facilities.

Rihab Taha,the head of Iraq's germ warfare program, provided a team of U.N.
biologists with several sealed glass vials containing freeze-dried anthrax
spores. The vials included two variants of the Vollumstrain, which had been
used in U.S. and British biological weapons programs.

The Iraqi scientist initially claimed that some of the anthrax spores were
used in research but had never been weaponized. Baghdad also acknowledged
that it had received the two Vollum strains and five other strains of
anthrax bacterium from the American Type Culture Collection, a commercial
germ bank now located near Manassas, Va.

Iraqi documents later obtained by the United Nations indicated that Baghdad
subsequently filled more than 50 bombs and missile warheads with a liquid
form of Vollum anthrax.

DNA analysis conducted on remnants of Iraq's Al-Hussein warheads at the
Al-Nibai missile destruction site revealed traces of bacteria similar to the
Vollum anthrax strain. "I can't say with one hundred percent certainty that
they are identical," Spertzel said. "But they are consistent with Vollum."

The U.S. company also sold Iraq several strains of Clostridiumbotulinum, a
poisonous toxin that paralyzes the muscles and lungs and kills by
suffocation. Iraq acknowledged producing at least 19,000 liters of botulinum
toxin, using more than half to fill at least 116 bombs and missile warheads.

Staff writer Joby Warrick contributed to this report.


D. Iraq's Weapons Could Make It a Target, Bush Says

By Mike Allen
Washington Post Staff Writer
Tuesday, November 27, 2001; Page A07

President Bush offered a new justification for future military strikes
against Iraq yesterday, declaring in blunt and personal terms that countries
that develop weapons of mass destruction could be a target in the U.S. war
on terrorism.

Bush was emphatic that much work remains to be done in Afghanistan, where
U.S. ground troops landed Sunday for the first time, and he warned that
casualties are likely as soldiers hunt cave to cave for Osama bin Laden and
other suspected perpetrators of the Sept. 11 hijackings. "This is a
dangerous period of time," he said.

But Bush, when asked at a Rose Garden appearance about whether Iraq could be
a target as the United States looks to expand the war on terrorists, said,
"Afghanistan is still just the beginning. . . . If you develop weapons of
mass destruction that you want to terrorize the world, you'll be held

White House press secretary Ari Fleischer said the president's comments
represented a "restatement of a long-standing American policy." Since Sept.
11, the administration has appeared divided about where to take the war
after Afghanistan, with some key Bush advisers urging a more aggressive
stance versus Iraq.

Iraqi President Saddam Hussein has barred United Nations weapons inspectors
from searching for chemical and biological weapons depots since 1997. U.S.
officials have said satellite photographs and intelligence reports suggest
that Hussein has continued his quest for chemical, biological and nuclear

"As for Mr. Saddam Hussein, he needs to let inspectors back in his country,
to show us that he is not developing weapons of mass destruction," Bush

Asked the consequences if inspectors are not admitted, Bush said, "He'll
find out."

The president also said North Korea must allow weapons inspectors. "We've
had that discussion with North Korea," Bush said. "I made it very clear to
North Korea that in order for us to have relations with them, that we want
to know: Are they developing weapons of mass destruction? And they ought to
stop proliferating."

Kenneth Allard, a former Army colonel who is a senior associate at the
Center for Strategic and International Studies, said administration
officials have been disciplined about not dwelling publicly on their
grievances with Iraq, but now "are allowing themselves the luxury of looking

"They have been very careful not to bite off more than they could chew,"
Allard said. "It is very clear that Iraq looms as the major continuing
terrorist threat, and they just didn't want to talk about that until they
were ready to go."

In Bush's address to Congress on Sept. 20, he said, "Any nation that
continues to harbor or support terrorism will be regarded by the United
States as a hostile regime." On Oct. 30, he was more specific, saying, "If
you feed a terrorist, if you provide sanctuary to a terrorist, if you fund a
terrorist, you are just as guilty as the terrorist that inflicted the harm
on the American people."

Bush said yesterday that he was not consciously expanding his list of
possible targets by citing countries, like Iraq, that possess weapons of
mass destruction. "I've always had that definition, as far as I'm
concerned," Bush said.

The series of recent administration remarks about Iraq began with an
appearance by national security adviser Condoleezza Rice on CNN's "Late
Edition" on Nov. 18. She said the United States is monitoring Hussein and
added, "We'll deal with that situation eventually."

Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul D. Wolfowitz said during a briefing on
Wednesday, after noting that the focus remains on Afghanistan, "We see a
good deal of evidence -- chemical, biological, and even nuclear -- that the
Iraqis are working both with their indigenous capabilities and acquiring
what they can illicitly in the international market."

Secretary of State Colin L. Powell said last night on CNN's "Larry King
Live" that Hussein should take Bush's comments as "a very sober, chilling

Powell said Iraq remains dangerous. "They continue to try to develop these
weapons, and we will keep the pressure on them to make sure that these
weapons do not become a serious threat to the region or to the world," he

Despite the drumbeat, White House officials said it would be a mistake to
assume that Iraq is the next target, or even that the next phase in the war
would be military. Officials have said strikes against bin Laden's al Qaeda
network are possible in Sudan and Somalia. Actions are also possible,
probably in coordination with the host governments, in the Philippines and

"The military has been making plans and contingencies with regard to Iraq
for 10 years," a senior administration official said. "We are focused on
what we're doing right now, which is in Afghanistan."

Bush's Rose Garden remarks were part of an appearance with two U.S. aid
workers who had been detained in Afghanistan on charges that they had
promoted Christianity. As Bush took questions, he said he was "not the least
bit concerned" about international concern over his plan to establish secret
military tribunals for certain terrorist suspects from abroad.

Bush is to meet Wednesday with Jose Maria Aznar, the prime minister of
Spain, which has cited the possible use of the tribunals as a reason for not
extraditing eight suspects as conspirators in the Sept. 11 attacks.

"A president must have the option of using a military tribunal in times of
war," Bush said. "It makes sense for national security purposes, it makes
sense for the protection of potential jurors. It makes sense for homeland
security. It is the right decision to make, and I will explain that to any
leader who asks."

Staff writer Steven Mufson contributed to this report.

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