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[casi] targeting of water treatment facilities

Does anyone have any further evidence on the following?

I read Ruth Blakeley's message (23 Jan, Re: [casi] Dual crisis looms for
millions in Iraq) with interest and followed up her paper Bomb Now, Die
Later (available at

According to Ruth the GWAPS (Gulf War Air Power Surveys) provides no
evidence that sewage treatment or water purification plants were targeted by
the 1991 allied air campaign. She discounts the report of Ramsey Clark that

"In all areas we visited, and all other areas reported to us, municipal
water processing plants, pumping stations and even reservoirs have been

Presumably the sentence she quotes from the 1996 WHO report that refers to

"the extensive destruction of electrical generating plants,
water-purification and sewage treatment plants during the six-week 1991

does not in her view provide evidence that Allied forces actually bombed
such plants.

Obviously, the Allied assault on the Iraqi electrical power infrastructure
plus the subsequent years of sanctions severely harmed the water
purification system. Probably no-one on the list is in any doubt about that.
But is there persuasive evidence that water-treatment plants were actually

Obvious issues --

Were there undisputed reports of HE damage at such plants?

Could such damage have come from Iraqi ordnance?

The GWAPS happily admits to intentional destruction of the electrical
system; however admission of attacks on water facilities (had there been
any) would be a rather more sensitive matter, one would have thought.

Andrew Goreing

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