UN Security Council resolutions relating to Iraq
The list below is out of date. For resolutions since 2004, please see Iraqanalysis.org
The following is a complete list of Security Council Resolutions (SCRs)
involving Iraq. The overwhelming majority of resolution since 1990 relate
to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait and subsequent developments. The resolutions
deemed particularly important are indicated in bold. A full list of SCRs
is available here.
Guides to the SCRs relating to Iraq are maintained by the Federation
of American Scientists (here)
and the UN's Office of the Iraq Programme
a further compilation of SCRs on Iraq is maintained by Saleh Iraq site
The Office of the Spokesman for
the Secretary-General has a brief guide to the resolutions on all
the UN sanctions regimes, Use
of sanctions under Chapter VII of the UN Charter.
2004 | 2003 | 2002
| 2001 | 2000
| 1999 | 1998 | 1997
| 1996 | 1995
| 1994 | 1993
| 1992 | 1991 | 1990 | pre-1990
resolutions on Iraq | Zimbabwe resolutions
- US/UK draft resolution, May 2004
- On 23 May, the US and UK circulated a draft resolution (pdf, pdf ) to govern the transfer of power to a caretaker Iraqi government
- 1518 (24 November 2003)
- Establishes a committee (the 1518 committee) to identify resources which should be transferred to the Development Fund for Iraq. This replaced some of the post-sanctions work of the '661 committee', which officially ceased to exist on 22 November 2003
- Adopts guidelines on the interpretation of resolution 1483's requirements for transfer of resources to the Development Fund for Iraq. The guidelines have been published as SC/7791 IK/356 (12 June 2003) and SC/7831 IK/372 (29 July 2003).
- 1511 (16 October
- This resolution:
- mandates the UN to 'strengthen its vital role in Iraq' (para
- 'underscores...the temporary nature of the Coalition
Provisional Authority' (para 1), welcomes the Governing
Council and its ministers as "the principal bodies of the Iraqi
interim administration" (para 4), and supports moves
towards self-government under its auspices(para 3)
- invites the Governing Council to draw up, by 15 December,
a timetable for drafting a constitution and holding
elections, in cooperation
with, and assisted by, the CPA and the UN representative
(para 7 & 8). Requests the CPA to report to the Security
Council on progress
towards the transfer of power (para 6)
- authorises a multinational security force, and urges
states to contribute to it and to the reconstruction of
(para 13 & 14). Requests states to contribute financially
(para 20), including at a Donors Conference (para 21),
by providing required
resources (para 22) and by transferring assets
of the former
regime to the Development Fund for Iraq (para 24)
- Requests the Secretary General to report on UN operations
in Iraq (para 12). Requests the US to report, at
least every 6 months, on military matters (para 25). Decides
Security Council should review the mission of the UN force
year, and that its mandate will expire once power
has been transferred to an Iraqi government (para 15)
- Reiterates the demand made in Resolution
1483 for an International
Advisory and Monitoring Board to supervise administration
of the Development Fund for Iraq (para 23)
- Three earlier US drafts for this resolution were made public,
on 4 September, 1
October and 13
October 2003. Postings to the CASI discussion list summarise
the first and second drafts, and between
the second and third drafts. Amendments to the first draft
were publicly proposed by France
and Germany, and by Syria.
Several of the Franco-German proposals were incorporated into the
- 1500 (14 August 2003)
- Establishes UN Assistance Mission for Iraq, as proposed by the
Secretary General in a report on July 17
- Welcomes creation of Governing Council
- 1490 (3 July 2003)
- Disbands the UN Iraq-Kuwait Observer Mission (UNIKOM), and removes
the demilitarised zone betweeen Iraq and Kuwait. Comes into force
on 6 October 2003.
- 1483 (22 May 2003)
- 1476 (24 April 2003)
- 1472 (28 March 2003)
- Gives UN more authority to administer the "oil for food"
programme for the next 45 days. Authorizes the Secretary-General
to establish alternative locations for the delivery of humanitarian
supplies and equipment, and proceed with approved contracts after
a review to determine priorities. Other steps called for include:
transferring unencumbered funds between accounts created pursuant
to the programme on an exceptional and reimbursable basis to ensure
the delivery of essential humanitarian supplies; and using funds
deposited in the accounts to compensate suppliers and shippers for
agreed additional shipping, transportation and storage costs incurred
as a result of diverting and delaying shipments
- Resolution proposed
by Spain, the US and the UK, which would have
authorized military action against Iraq (7 March 2003)
- 1382 (29 November 2001):
- Extends the oil-for-food programme by 180 days, commencing Phase
XI on 1 December 2001. It also adopts a new "goods review list"
(GRL) and procedures for its application to come into force on 30
May 2002. Note that the GRL consists not only of the items actually
listed in the annex to the resolution, but also those on the "1051
lists" and those listed within a new 150-page list drawn
up by the US. This latter list was an annex to a letter from the
US ambassador dated 27 November 2001; a copy sent to CASI can be
viewed here. All applications to
import goods will have to be reviewed by Unmovic and the UN Office
of the Iraq Programme to determine if the proposed imports contain
items on the GRL.
- 1360 (3 July 2001): Iraq-Kuwait.
- Extends the oil-for-food programme by 150 days to begin Phase
X, after no agreement was reached over the new UK proposals for
a modified sanctions regime. The subsequent exchange
of letters between the UN and Iraq, agreeing to the continuation
of the programme under the terms of this resolution, is dated 5
July 2001. The text of the Security Council debates are available
for 26 June 2001 and 28
June 2001. CASI's full index of proposals and statements from
May to July 2001 is available here.
- 1352 (1 June 2001): Iraq-Kuwait.
- Extends Phase IX of the oil-for-food programme by one month only,
after there is general agreement that more time is necessary to
review the UK's draft
resolution (and annex)
to change the scope and mode of operation of the sanctions.
- 1330 (4 December 2000):
- Extends the oil-for-food programme by 180 days, to commence Phase
IX. The resolution also allocates another $600m to oil-industry
spares, requests exploration into a "cash component" (para. 15),
reduces Compensation Fund deductions to 25% (para 12), requests
electricity and housing "green lists" (para 10), expresses "readiness
to consider" paying Iraq's UN membership dues out of oil-for-food
revenue, seeks expanded versions of the existing "green lists" (para
11), and asks the Secretary-General to report on other oil export
routes from Iraq. UN
Press Release here.
- 1302 (8 June 2000): Iraq-Kuwait.
- Begins Phase VIII of "oil for food". The UN's press release is
Paragraph 8 asks for water and sanitation "green lists". Paragraph
9 extends the oil spare parts permission of SCR 1293. Paragraph
18 calls for the establishment of a team of "independent experts
to prepare by 26 November 2000 a comprehensive report and analysis
of the humanitarian situation in Iraq, including the current humanitarian
needs [...] and recommendations to meet those needs, within the
framework of the existing resolutions". According to a UN source,
the UK and US insisted upon the final clause of paragraph 18, knowing
that the Iraqi government's position would prevent it from cooperating
with such an analysis. As a result, there has been no cooperation
and no such report has been produced. The
BBC's report outlines the politics behind the comprehensive
report concentrates on the debate around bombing in the "no
fly zones". On 30 October, the chair of the group of independent
experts mentioned in the resolution was announced
as Thorvald Stoltenberg of Norway.
- 1293 (31 March 2000): Iraq-Kuwait.
- Doubles permitted oil spare part imports for Phases VI and VII.
The UN's press release is here.
Paragraphs 53 - 57 of the UN Secretary-General's 10 March 2000 report
(S/2000/208) explains the background
to this doubling. See CNN's
story for mention of some of the politics of the resolution.
- 1210 (24 November 1998):
- Begins Phase V of "oil for food", to start on 26 November 1998.
- 1205 (5 November 1998): Iraq-Kuwait.
- Echoes SCR 1194, demands that the Iraqi government "provide immediate,
complete and unconditional cooperation" with inspectors and alludes
to the threat to "international peace and security" posed by the
- 1194 (9 September 1998):
- "Condemns the decision by Iraq ... to suspend cooperation with
[Unscom] and the IAEA", demands that the decisions be reversed and
cancels October 1998 scheduled sanctions review.
- 1175 (19 June 1998): Iraq-Kuwait.
- Gives Iraq permission to apply to import up to $300 million of
oil industry spare parts this Phase to allow it to increase its
oil production to the cap set in SCR 1153.
- 1158 (25 March 1998): Iraq-Kuwait.
- Continues Phase III but under the enhanced provisions of SCR 1153.
- 1154 (2 March 1998): Iraq-Kuwait.
- Commends the Secretary-General for securing commitments from the
Iraqi government to fully comply with weapons inspections on his
mission to Baghdad, and endorses the memorandum
of understanding (S/1998/166) that was signed on 23 February.
The mapping of the areas of the eight "presidential sites"
by a UN Technical Mission is described in an annexed report to a
letter from the Secretary-General
of 27 February (S/1998/166/Add.1). The procedures for the inspection
of "presidential sites" are laid out in an annex to the
letter from the Secretary-General
of 8 March 1998 (S/1998/208). This agreement put off US and British
- 1153 (20 February 1998):
- Agrees to increase the cap on permitted Iraqi oil sales to $5.256
billion per Phase once the Secretary-General has approved an "enhanced
distribution plan" for the new revenue. Recognises the importance
of infrastructure and project-based purchases. Phase IV eventually
begins on 30 May 1998. Resolution passed during Unscom crisis.
- 1143 (4 December 1997): Iraq-Kuwait.
- Begins Phase III of "oil for food", to start on 5 December 1997
and welcomes the Secretary-General's intention to submit a supplementary
report on possible improvements in the "oil for food" programme.
- 1137 (12 November 1997):
- Rejects Iraqi government's announced intention to prohibit weapons
inspections unless the composition of Unscom teams is altered to
limit the number of inspectors from the US, and to prohibit Unscom
overflights. Imposes travel ban on officials to be lifted when full
cooperation resumes. Sanctions review to be in April 1998 if cooperation
has been restored.
- 1134 (23 October 1997):
- Reaffirms Iraq's obligations to cooperate with weapons inspectors
after Iraqi officials announce in September 1997 that "presidential
sites" are off-limits to inspectors. Threatens travel ban on obstructive
Iraqi officials not "carrying out bona fide diplomatic assignments
or missions" if non-cooperation continues. Sanctions reviews again
- 1129 (12 September 1997):
- Alters timing of permitted Phase II oil sales in response to Iraqi
government's refusal to sell oil until its Distribution Plan was
approved by the UN.
- 1115 (21 June 1997): Iraq-Kuwait.
- "Condemns the repeated refusal of the Iraqi authorities to allow
access to sites" and "[d]emands that [they] cooperate fully" with
Unscom. Suspends the sanctions and arms embargo reviews (paragraphs
21 and 28 of SCR 687) until the next Unscom report and threatens
to "impose additional measures on those categories of Iraqi officials
responsible for the non-compliance".
- 1111 (4 June 1997): Iraq-Kuwait.
- Begins Phase II of "oil for food", to start on 8 June 1997.
- 986 (14 April 1995): Iraq
- New "oil for food" resolution, allowing $1 billion in oil sales
every 90 days. Memorandum of understanding
signed by UN and Government of Iraq on 20 May 1996; Phase I begins
on 10 December 1996. The details of implementation, requested in
paragraph 12, are here.
- 949 (15 October 1994): Iraq-Kuwait.
- "Condemns recent military deployments by Iraq in the direction
of ... Kuwait", demands an immediate withdrawal and full co-operation
with Unscom. According to a spokesman for the US Central Command,
the resolution was passed following a threatening buildup of Iraqi
forces near the border with Kuwait, and bars Iraq from moving SAMs
into the southern no-fly zone.
- 899 (4 March 1994): Iraq-Kuwait.
- Allows compensation to private Iraqi citizens who lost assets
to the boundary demarcation process.
- 833 (27 May 1993): Iraq-Kuwait
- "Welcomes ... the successful conclusion of the work of the [Boundary
Demarcation] Commission". The Iraqi National Assembly recognised
the territorial integrity and political independence of the State
of Kuwait, within the boundaries laid down by the Boundary Demarcation
Commission, on 10 November 1994, and its decision was ratified in
a decree signed by Saddam Hussein on the same day.
- 806 (5 February 1993): Iraq-Kuwait
- Arms UNIKOM to prevent border incursions by Iraq.
- 778 (2 October 1992): Iraq-Kuwait
- Deplores Iraq's refusal to implements SCRs 706 and 712 and recalls
Iraq's liabilities. Takes steps to transfer funds (including Iraqi
assets overseas) into the UN account established to pay for compensation
and humanitarian expenses.
- 773 (26 August 1992): Iraq-Kuwait
- Responds to a report on progress by the UN Iraq-Kuwait Boundary
Demarcation Commission and notes that the Commission "is not reallocating
territory between Kuwait and Iraq".
- 715 (11 October 1991): Iraq (PDF).
- Approves the plans of Unscom and the IAEA, including for long
term monitoring. Iraq agreed to the monitoring system established
by this resolution on 26 November 1993.
- 712 (19 September 1991): Iraq
- Rejects the Secretary-General's suggestion that at least $2 billion
in oil revenue be made available for humanitarian needs; instead
allows total sale of $1.6 billion. Eventually rejected by
Government of Iraq.
- 707 (15 August 1991): Iraq (PDF).
- Condemns Iraq's non-compliance on weapons inspections as a "material
breach" of Resolution 687, and incorporates into its standard
for compliance with SCR687 that Iraq provide "full, final and complete
disclosure ... of all aspects of its programmes to develop" prohibited
weaponry. Also grants permission for Unscom and the IAEA to conduct
flights throughout Iraq, for surveillance or logistical purposes.
- 706 (15 August 1991): Iraq-Kuwait
- Decides to allow emergency oil sale by Iraq to fund compensation
claims, weapons inspection and humanitarian needs in Iraq. The text
of the debates on this resolution in the Security Council is available
- 705 (15 August 1991): Iraq (PDF).
- "Decides that ... compensation to be paid by Iraq ... shall not
exceed 30 per cent of the annual value of the exports".
- 700 (17 June 1991): Iraq-Kuwait
- Approves the Secretary-General's guidelines on an arms and dual-use
embargo on Iraq and calls upon states to act consistently with them.
Paragraph 5 of this resolution makes the 661 committee responsible
for the on-going monitoring regime, thus ensuring that it would
retain a role in the long-term relationship between the UN and Iraq.
- 699 (17 June 1991): Iraq (PDF).
- Approves the Secretary-General's plan for Unscom and the IAEA
and asks for support from Member States.
- 692 (20 May 1991): Iraq-Kuwait (PDF).
- Establishes the UN Compensation Commission and asks the Secretary-General
to indicate the maximum possible level of Iraq's contribution to
the Compensation Fund.
- 689 (9 April 1991): Iraq-Kuwait
- Approves the Secretary-General's report on the United Nations
Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission (UNIKOM).
- 688 (5 April 1991): Iraq (PDF).
- "Condemns the repression of the Iraqi civilian population" in
the post-war civil war and "[d]emands that Iraq ... immediately
end this repression". 688 is occasionally
claimed to provide the legal basis for the American and British
"no fly zones". These claims are incorrect both because 688
does not invoke Chapter
VII of the UN Charter,
a necessary condition for the use of force, and because it does
not authorise specific measures to uphold human rights in Iraq,
such as "no fly zones". The BBC
has an outline of the "no fly zones" here.
The UK Select Committee on Defence addresses the legal issue briefly
- 687 (3 April 1991): Iraq-Kuwait
- Declares effective a formal cease-fire (upon Iraqi acceptance),
establishes the UN Special Commission on weapons (Unscom), extends
sanctions and, in paragraphs 21 and 22, provides ambiguous conditions
for lifting or easing them. Described as a "Christmas tree", because
"so much was hung on it". The fourth preambulary clause, on "the
need to be assured of Iraq's peaceful intentions", has been
referred to as the "Saddam Hussein clause" as it has been
used to link the continuation of sanctions with the survival of
the present Iraqi regime. The text of the debates on this resolution
in the Security Council is available here.
- 686 (2 March 1991): Iraq-Kuwait
- Affirms the "independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity
of Iraq" and sets out terms for a cease-fire. The use of force remains
valid to fulfil these conditions.
- 685 (31 January 1991): Iraq-Islamic
Republic of Iran (PDF).
Resolutions on Iraq before 1990.
Sanctions on Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe).
As they were drafted quickly, the early UN resolutions imposing sanctions
on Iraq lift their language directly from UN resolutions imposing sanctions
on Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), the only previous case of comprehensive
UN sanctions. Some of the Zimbabwe resolutions are listed below.