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[casi] Synarchism: The Fascist Roots Of the Wolfowitz Cabal

      This article appears in the May 30, 2003 issue of Executive
Intelligence Review.
      Synarchism: The Fascist Roots
      Of the Wolfowitz Cabal
      by Jeffrey Steinberg
      In 1922, Count Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi launched the Pan European
Union, at a founding convention in Vienna, attended by more than 6,000
delegates. Railing against the "Bolshevist menace" in Russia, the Venetian
Count called for the dissolution of all the nation-states of Western Europe
and the erection of a single, European feudal state, modeled on the Roman
and Napoleonic empires. "There are Europeans," Coudenhove-Kalergi warned,
who are "naïve enough to believe that the opposition between the Soviet
Union and Europe can be bridged by the inclusion of the Soviet Union in the
United States of Europe. These Europeans need only to glance at the map to
persuade themselves that the Soviet Union in its immensity can, with the
help of the [Communist] Third International, very quickly prevail over
little Europe. To receive this Trojan horse into the European union would
lead to perpetual civil war and the extermination of European culture. So
long, therefore, as there is any will to survive subsisting in Europe, the
idea of linking the Soviet Union with Pan Europe must be rejected. It would
be nothing less than the suicide of Europe."

      Elsewhere, Coudenhove-Kalergi echoed the contemporaneous writings of
British Fabian Roundtable devotees H.G. Wells and Lord Bertrand Russell,
declaring: "This eternal war can end only with the constitution of a world
republic.... The only way left to save the peace seems to be a politic of
peaceful strength, on the model of the Roman Empire, that succeeded in
having the longest period of peace in the west thanks to the supremacy of
his legions."

      The launching of the Pan European Union was bankrolled by the
Venetian-rooted European banking family, the Warburgs. Max Warburg, scion of
the German branch of the family, gave Coudenhove-Kalergi 60,000 gold marks
to hold the founding convention. Even more revealing, the first mass rally
of the Pan European Union in Berlin, at the Reichstag, was addressed by
Hjalmar Schacht, later the Reichsbank head, Economics Minister and chief
architect of the Hitler coup. A decade later, in October 1932, Schacht
delivered a major address before another PanEuropa event, in which he
assured Coudenhove-Kalergi and the others, "In three months, Hitler will be
in power.... Hitler will create PanEuropa. Only Hitler can create

      According to historical documents, Italy's Fascist dictator Benito
Mussolini was initially skeptical about the PanEuropa idea, but was "won
over" to the scheme, following a meeting with Coudenhove-Kalergi, during
which, in the Count's words, "I gave him a complete harvest of Nietzsche's
quotes for the United States of Europe.... My visit represented a shift in
the behavior of Mussolini towards PanEuropa. His opposition disappeared."

      At the founding congress of the Pan European Union in Vienna, the
backdrop behind the podium was adorned with portraits of the movement's
leading intellectual icons: Immanuel Kant, Napoleon Bonaparte, Giuseppe
Mazzini, and Friedrich Nietzsche.

      Bankers' Fascism
      The pivotal role of Schacht in the Hitler coup and in the Pan European
Union, highlights a critical dimension of the universal fascist scheme: the
top-down role of the financial "overworld" and its banking technocrats. By
all historical accounts, Schacht was the architect, in 1930, of the Bank for
International Settlements (BIS), along with the Bank of England's Montagu
Norman. Historian Carroll Quigley, in his epic book, Tragedy and Hope-A
History of the World in Our Time (New York: MacMillan Company, 1966),
described the BIS scheme to establish a dictatorship over world finance:

      "The powers of financial capital had another far-reaching aim, nothing
less than to create a world system of financial control in private hands
able to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the
world as a whole. This system was to be controlled in a feudalist fashion by
the central banks of the world acting in concert, by secret agreements
arrived at in frequent private meetings and conferences. The apex of the
system was to be the Bank for International Settlements in Basle,
Switzerland, a private bank owned and controlled by the world's central
banks which were themselves private corporations. Each central bank, in the
hands of men like Montagu Norman of the Bank of England, Benjamin Strong of
the New York Federal Reserve Bank, Charles Rist of the Bank of France, and
Hjalmar Schacht of the Reichsbank, sought to dominate its government by its
ability to control Treasury loans, to manipulate foreign exchanges, to
influence the level of economic activity in the country, and to influence
cooperative politicians by subsequent economic rewards in the business

      Quigley highlighted the role of Schacht's closest ally in the BIS
scheme, Bank of England Governor Norman, who headed the privately owned
British institution for an unprecedented 24 years (1920-44). "Norman was a
strange man," Quigley reported, "whose mental outlook was one of
successfully suppressed hysteria or even paranoia. He had no use for
governments and feared democracy. Both of these seemed to him to be threats
to private banking, and thus to all that was proper and precious in human
life. Strong-willed, tireless, and ruthless, he viewed his life as a kind of
cloak-and-dagger struggle with the forces of unsound money which were in
league with anarchy and Communism."

      Montagu Norman and Hjalmar Schacht personified the banking overworld,
that bankrolled and installed Hitler and the Nazis in power, in pursuit of
their larger, universal fascist scheme.

      Even more damning were the profiles of Schacht and Norman and their
role in the Hitler project, in The Hitler Book, by a Schiller Institute
research team, headed by Helga Zepp-LaRouche (New York: New Benjamin
Franklin House, 1984):

      "The BIS, nominally set up after the breakdown of 'normal'
international financial relations in order to prevent a downward spiraling
of international payments, in fact finished off the hapless Weimar Republic
by its stern refusal to come to the help of a virtually bankrupt Germany in
the crucial summer of 1931, after the Danat Bank collapse had brought the
whole nation to its knees. Schacht, who had been a member of the original
BIS team and was to return to its board from 1933 through 1938, had been
campaigning since his 1930 resignation as head of the Reichsbank, for
Anglo-American support for a takeover by the NSDAP [Nazi Party] and its
leader, Herr Hitler. He had resigned on March 7, 1930 and the BIS was
formally established in June. In September, he was off to London and the
United States, to 'sell' the Nazi option to the Anglo-American leadership,
notably Bank of England governor and BIS director Montagu Norman, and the
already influential Dulles brothers of Sullivan & Cromwell law firm, one of
America's most influential-and the attorneys for IG Farben, and many other
large German companies and provincial governments. Schacht's Hamburg friend
and colleague, patrician Nazi Gerhard Westrick, ran the correspondent law
firm to Dulles's in Germany."

      On March 16, 1933, a grateful Hitler brought Schacht back as head of
the Reichsbank, explained The Hitler Book. A year later, Schacht was made
Economics Minister. "Now, the BIS was going to help the Third Reich-by 1939
it had no less than several hundred million Swiss gold francs invested in
Germany. On the BIS board were Baron Kurt von Schröder, by now a general in
the SS Death's Head Brigade; Dr. Hermann Schmitz of IG Farben-whom Schacht
had trained at the imperial economics ministry from 1915 on-and, later,
Hitler's two personal appointees, Walter Funk and Emil Puhl of the

      File: 'Synarchist/Nazi-Communist'
      The larger universal fascist schema, into which the Norman-Schacht
"Hitler project" fit, was well known to leading American intelligence,
military, and diplomatic figures of the Franklin Roosevelt era, who
maintained exhaustive files under such headings as

      U.S. government archives from the FDR era, which were made available
to EIR researchers, feature extensive intelligence reports on the
international fascist plots, from the files of the U.S. State Department;
U.S. Army Intelligence and Navy Intelligence; and the Coordinator of
Information (COI), and its successor, the Office of Strategic Services
(OSS). These files are of immediate relevance today, given the ongoing coup
d'état in Washington by the disciples of Leo Strauss, Alexandre Kojève, and
Carl Schmitt inside the George W. Bush Administration. Kojève and Schmitt
were leading figures in the wartime "Synarchist" conspiracy, and they
personified the perpetuation of that universal fascist plan and apparatus
into the postwar period.

      Already, following EIR's lead, major American and European newspapers
have identified such putschists as Paul Wolfowitz, Abram Shulsky, William
Kristol, John Ashcroft, Steve Cambone, and Gary Schmitt as the offspring of
the late University of Chicago Prof. Leo Strauss; Strauss, in turn, was the
life-long collaborator and promoter of Nazi jurist Carl Schmitt, official
Nazi philosopher and Nietzsche revivalist Martin Heidegger, and French
Synarchist Alexandre Kojève-all unabashed advocates of tyranny as the only
appropriate form of government. Although the May 4 Sunday New York Times
feature off-handedly mentions Kojève as Strauss's colleague, without further
identification, all of the major media coverage has been sanitized of any
discussion of the overtly fascist/Synarchist roots of the Straussian creed.

      Nevertheless, there are growing indications that some elements within
the U.S. political institutions-particularly the military and intelligence
communities, which comprise an important element of what Lyndon LaRouche
refers to as "the institution of the U.S. Presidency"-are waking up to the
cruel reality that a small group of universal fascists has seized the reins
of power and is steering an ill-equipped President George W. Bush, the
United States, and the rest of the world into a maelstrom of perpetual war
and chaos.

      A timely review of the history of the 20th-Century Synarchists is,
therefore, in order, to enable those political circles already shocked into
action, to understand the nature of the enemy, and exploit the greatest
weakness of these Straussian would-be putschists-their open embrace of
universal fascism, otherwise known as "Synarchism."

      The Langer Study
      As EIR reported on May 9 ("Dick Cheney Has a French Connection-To
Fascism"), in 1947, OSS veteran and Harvard Prof. William L. Langer
assembled the official history of the Roosevelt Administration's dealings
with Vichy France. Our Vichy Gamble was based on an exhaustive review of
wartime archives, buttressed by interviews with top American officials,
including OSS head Gen. William Donovan and President Franklin Roosevelt

      Langer minced no words in discussing the Synarchist circles in Vichy
France. Referring to Adm. Jean François Darlan, who, along with Pierre
Laval, was among the most notorious of the Vichy collaborationists with the
Nazis, Langer wrote: "Darlan's henchmen were not confined to the fleet. His
policy of collaboration with Germany could count on more than enough eager
supporters among French industrial and banking interests-in short, among
those who even before the war, had turned to Nazi Germany and had looked to
Hitler as the savior of Europe from Communism.... These people were as good
fascists as any in Europe.... Many of them had long had extensive and
intimate business relations with German interests and were still dreaming of
a new system of 'synarchy,' which meant government of Europe on fascist
principles by an international brotherhood of financiers and

      EIR is in possession of many of the documents that Langer reviewed, in
preparing Our Vichy Gamble. They offer an in-depth study of a fascist
apparatus, whose European-wide tentacles extended into France, Germany,
Britain, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands-and, across the Atlantic, inside the
United States. One particularly revealing document, prepared by the
Coordinator of Information in November 1940, focussed on the Synarchist
strategy towards England and America. The document was called, "Synarchie
and the Policy of the Banque Worms Group."

      The unnamed author began, "In recent reports there have been several
references to the growing political power of the Banque Worms group in
France, which includes amongst its members such ardent collaborationists as
Pucheu, Benoist-Mechin, Leroy-Ladurie, Bouthillier, and representatives of
big French industrial organizations." Under the subtitle, "Similarity of
aims of 'Synarchie' and Banque Worms," the report continued, "The
reactionary movement known as 'Synarchie' has been in existence in France
for nearly a century. Its aim has always been to carry out a bloodless
revolution, inspired by the upper classes, aimed at producing a form of
government by 'technicians,' under which home and foreign policy would be
subordinated to international economy. The aims of the Banque Worms group
are the same as those of 'Synarchie,' and the leaders of the two groups are,
in most cases, identical."

      The "Banque Worms group" was closely allied with the Lazard banking
interests in Paris, London, and New York, and with Royal Dutch Shell's Henri
Deterding. Hippolyte Worms, the bank's founder, was one of 12 initial
Synarchist Movement of Empire (SME) members, according to other French
police and intelligence reports.

      The report itemized the aims of the Synarchists, as of August 1940:
"to check any new social schemes which might tend to weaken the power of the
international financiers and industrialists; to work for the ultimate
complete control of all industry by international finance and industry; to
protect Jewish and Anglo-Saxon interests; ... to take advantage of
Franco-German collaboration to conclude a series of agreements with German
industries, thereby establishing a solid community of interests between
French and German industrialists, which will tend to strengthen the hands of
international finance and industry; ... to effect a fusion with Anglo-Saxon
industry after the war."

      The author of the COI study reported, "There is reason to believe that
both [Hermann] Göring and Dr. [Walther] Funk are in sympathy with these
aspirations," and that "Some headway is claimed to have been made in
securing the adhesion of big U.S. industry to the movement."

      Beaverbrook and Hoare
      The COI study's segment regarding "Policy in regard to Great Britain,"
elaborated the following Synarchist plan: "To bring about the fall of the
Churchill Government by creating the belief in the country that a more
energetic government is needed to prosecute the war; it is recognized that
an effective means of creating suspicion of the Government's efficiency
would be to induce the resignation of Lord Beaverbrook; to bring about the
formation of a new Government including Sir Samuel Hoare, Lord Beaverbrook
and Mr. Hore-Belisha. (Note. The source has added that in the Worms group it
is believed that those circles in Great Britain who are favorably disposed
to their plan, are most critical of Mr. Churchill, Lord Halifax and Captain
Margesson.); through the medium of Sir Samuel Hoare to bring about an
agreement between British industry and the Franco-German 'bloc'; to protect
Anglo-Saxon interests on the continent; to reach an agreement for the
cessation of the reciprocal bombing of industrial centers. (Note. The source
has added that Göring is reputed to have signified his entire approval of
this project.)"

      The naming of Lord Beaverbrook and Sir Samuel Hoare, two leading
figures in the British Roundtable group, as Synarchist collaborators is of
great significance, indicating that American intelligence, from no later
than 1940, was tracking the high-level British involvement in the scheme for
a postwar universal fascist "Europe of the oligarchs," along precisely the
lines spelled out in Count Coudenhove-Kalergi's "Synarchist" manifesto,
founding the Pan European Union. Indeed, other U.S. intelligence wartime
documents identified the PEU as a project of the European Synarchist secret
brotherhood. The Synarchist Movement of Empire (SME), according to various
accounts in the wartime U.S. files, was founded in 1917 or 1922, and the
first two major "projects" of the Synarchists were Mussolini's March on Rome
and the launching of the Pan Europa movement.

      Back on the British front: Sir Samuel Hoare was a leading figure in
British intelligence, having been posted to Russia during the period of the
Bolshevik Revolution, where he had a personal hand in the assassination of
Grigori Rasputin, after Rasputin had warned that Russian participation in
World War I would surely lead to the fall of the Romanovs. Hoare was the
leading British military intelligence case-officer for instigating the
overthrow of the Tsar and the Russian Revolution. He personified the upper
echelons of what U.S. intelligence files characterized as the
"Synarchist/Nazi-Communist" group. In his capacity as Foreign Secretary in
1935, he had negotiated the Hoare-Laval agreement, by which Great Britain
and France mutually accepted Mussolini's conquest by invasion of Abyssinia,
a major act of appeasement. He later served as British ambassador to
Francisco Franco's Spain, and, according to several biographical accounts,
remained secretly on Lord Beaverbrook's payroll as a policy advisor. Hoare,
later "Lord Templewood," was also a leading British promoter of Frank
Buchman and the Moral Rearmament Movement, the antecedent to Rev. Sun Myung
Moon's Unification Church (see EIR, Dec. 20, 2002).

      The case of Lord Beaverbrook (Max Aitken) has even more profound and
enduring implications, given that two of the leading financial-political
propagandists for today's neo-conservative revolution in Washington-press
magnates Lord Conrad Black and Rupert Murdoch-are Beaverbrook protégés. The
Australian Murdoch, on graduating Oxford, did an apprenticeship at
Beaverbrook's London Daily Express, which Murdoch referred affectionately to
as "Beaverbrook's brothel."

      For Black, the connection ran deeper-through the wartime British
secret intelligence high command. Conrad Black's father, George Montagu
Black, worked directly under the Beaverbrook chain of command during World
War II, when Beaverbrook was Minister of Aircraft Production, and when Black
and Edward Plunkett Taylor ran the Canadian front company War Supplies, Ltd.
out of the Willard Hotel in Washington, coordinating all
British-American-Canadian military procurement arrangements. The $1.3
billion garnered by Taylor and Black from their wartime "private" arms deals
provided the seed money for G.M. Black's postwar launching of the Argus
Corp., which, today, is the Hollinger Corp. media cartel of Conrad Black.

      Beaverbrook's transformation, from a leading promoter of an
Anglo-German alliance following Hitler's takeover, to a leading war cabinet
official, following Hitler's attack on Britain, was nothing short of
miraculous. In 1935, when Hoare had conducted the secret negotiations with
Laval, Beaverbrook had accompanied the Foreign Secretary on the trip and
conducted his own back-channel work to assure positive media coverage of the
deal in both England and France. That year, Beaverbrook traveled to Rome and
Berlin for personal meetings with Mussolini and Hitler. A year later,
Beaverbrook was the guest of Hitler's Foreign Minister Joachim von
Ribbentrop, at the Munich Olympic Games.

      But the most famous part that Beaverbrook played in the Hitler saga,
had to do with the 1933 Reichstag fire-the arson attack on the Weimar
Republic's parliament-which consolidated Hitler's death grip on absolute
power. Beaverbrook had posted a trusted aide, Sefton Delmer, in charge of
his Daily Express press bureau in Berlin, and Delmer had become a confidant
of Hitler, traveling with him on the campaign trail during the 1933
elections. Delmer was one of the first "journalists" to arrive as the
Reichstag burned, and his dispatch from the scene-complete with exclusive
interviews with Hitler, Göring, and others-established the cover for the
actual Nazi authors of the terror attack, which sealed Hitler's
dictatorship. Delmer, in a 1939 article recounting the incident, stuck to
his story, which countered the majority of the world media coverage, and
blamed the fire on a communist-not on the Nazis.

      Beaverbrook-even after his "Damascus road conversion" to war cabinet
minister-retained his ties to the Nazi machine. When Nazi leader Rudolph
Hess parachuted into Scotland, in a final vain effort to maintain the
Anglo-Nazi alliance against the Soviet Union, Beaverbrook arranged a private
prison interview with Hess. Details of the session are still sketchy, but
one quote to emerge from the meeting, was Hess telling Beaverbrook: "Hitler
likes you a great deal."

      'Synarchism' Defined
      Among the thousands of documents that EIR obtained from the U.S.
wartime archives was an 18-page French military intelligence report,
summarizing a 100-page dossier on the French Synarchist groups, dated July
1941. The report dealt with the Synarchist Movement of Empire (SME), the
Synarchist Revolutionary Convention (SRC) and the Secret Committee of
Revolutionary Action (SCRA), the military leadership arm of the SME, also
known as the "Cagoulards" (the "hooded ones").

      The report provided a brief history: "The Synarchist movement is an
international movement born after the Versailles Treaty, which was financed
and directed by certain financial groups belonging to the top international
banking community. Its aim is essentially to overthrow in every country,
where they exist, the parliamentary regimes which are considered
insufficiently devoted to the interests of these groups and therefore, too
difficult to control because of the number of persons required to control

      "SME proposes therefore to substitute them by authoritarian regimes
more docile and more easily manueverable. Power would be concentrated in the
hands of the CEOs of industry and in designated representatives of chosen
banking groups for each country. In a word, the idea is to give to each
country a political constitution and an appropriate national economic
structure organized for the following purposes:

        "1. Place the political power directly into the hands of chosen
people and eliminate all intermediaries. 2. Establish a maximum
concentration of industries and suppress all unwarranted competition. 3.
Establish an absolute control of prices of all goods (raw materials,
semi-finished or finished goods). 4. Create judicial and social institutions
that would prevent all extremes of action."

      The dossier reported that, following failed Cagoulard insurrections in
1934 and 1937, the SME infiltrated all the economic and related ministries
of the French government, conducted sabotage from within the regime, and set
the basis for the Vichy government of 1940, which was dominated, from top to
bottom, by Synarchist secret society members. The report named 40 top
officials of the government of Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain, who were all
SME members.

      The dossier repeatedly emphasized that the French SME was but one
component of an international Synarchist apparatus, "organized and financed
in all countries by certain elements of industrial CEOs and high banking
circles. Its objective on the international level is to subvert all of the
democratic regimes in the world, and substitute them with stronger
governments, more docile and whose leaders of command in each nation are
centralized in the hands of a number of affiliates belonging to big business
and international banking interests which coordinate their activities around
the world." In France, under the Vichy regime, noted the dossier, "the main
administrations of the country, have become the arms of Bank Worms whose adm
inistrative council controls all of the top administrators of the state."

      The Synarchists did not concentrate all their efforts on infiltrating
and controlling the Vichy regime. A U.S. military intelligence report, dated
July 27, 1944, from the military attaché in Algiers, warned of Synarchist
penetration of the upper echelons of the Free French government of Gen.
Charles de Gaulle, headquartered in Algeria. "Some of the oldest and
formerly most faithful supporters of General de Gaulle are worried by what
they call a tendency to let 'Synarchism' penetrate even the highest brackets
of the Algiers Administration," the report began. "It is believed that
General de Gaulle up to recently, opposed Synarchism, which is a strongly
reactionary movement, financed by the Haute Banque. He has even ordered a
confidential study to be made on the subject, a copy of which has been seen
by American officers." The report concluded, "If it is a fact that many
individuals who are holding positions of importance in the cabinet and the
immediate entourage of General de Gaulle, are also closely associated with
political ideas alien to the program which de Gaulle and his government
publicly endorse, then far-reaching political inferences may be drawn." Of
course, a decade later, leading wartime "Gaullist" Jacques Soustelle would
launch the Secret Army Organization (OAS), which would be responsible for
repeated assassination attempts against de Gaulle, and would be implicated
in the Permindex assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

      While it is not certain that Soustelle was a wartime member of the
Synarchist plot, it is certain, from French and American government records,
that one leading Synarchist operative infiltrated into the de Gaulle Free
French camp was Robert Marjolin, one of Alexandre Kojève's prize
student/protégés of his 1933-39 courses on Hegel, Nietzsche, and the "end of
history." Marjolin became Minister of Economy in the first de Gaulle postwar
government, and he immediately brought Kojève into the ministry.

      The Cult of Napoleon
      At its core, the Synarchist international-like its front group Pan
European Union-sought to create a one-world tyranny, modeled on the reign of
Napoleon Bonaparte. The first "Synarchist" text was written in the 1860s by
Joseph Alexandre Saint-Yves d'Alveydre (1842-1909), an occultist and
follower of Napoleon Bonaparte's own mystical advisor, Antoine Fabre
d'Olivet (1767-1825). Fabre d'Olivet had started out as a leading member of
the Jacobins, participating personally in the foiled assassination plot
against King Louis XVI in 1789. He later served as a top official of the
Interior and War Ministries under Napoleon Bonaparte. His occult writings
about "purgative violence" and the "will to power"-antecedents of the works
of Nietzsche-were adopted by Saint-Yves d'Alveydre, who launched the idea of
Synarchism as a counter to the anarchy that had destabilized all of Europe,
from 1648.

      Saint-Yves' successor, Gerard Vincent Encausse ("Papus"), founded the
Saint-Yves School of Occult Sciences, and began a recruiting drive for a
secret society, which he called the Synarchy Government. In his 1894 book
Anarchie, Indolence & Synarchie, Papus spelled out an ambitious scheme to
recruit all of the leaders of industry, commerce, finance, the military, and
academia, to a single power scheme, aimed at destroying the "internal
microbe" of society, anarchy.

      Both Saint-Yves and Papus envisioned a global Synarchist empire,
divided into five geographic areas: 1. the British Empire; 2. Euro-Africa;
3. Eurasia; 4. Pan-America; 5. Asia. Indeed, Alexandre Kojève is identified
in Russian sources as a leader of the so-called "Eurasians," a group of
Russian emigrés in the 1920s Berlin and Paris, led by Sir Samuel Hoare's
Guchkov and tied into the Soviet secret service project called "the Trust."
The "Eurasians" welcomed the Russian Revolution as a purgative force to wipe
out corrupt Western civilization. Kojève's own cosmology of great tyrants
counted Josef Stalin and Adolf Hitler as second only to Napoleon, in
achieving the "end of history" goal of a true global tyranny.

      Strauss, Kojève, Schmitt, and Schacht
      While none of the American archive documents reviewed to date by EIR
identify Nazi jurist Carl Schmitt as a Synarchist, circumstantial evidence
points to that conclusion. Schmitt was an emissary to Spain, Portugal,
France, and Italy, during the height of fascism, turning out a series of
juridical documents, justifying the jackboot tyrannies. Schmitt was a
protected asset of Göring, the leading Synarchist figure in Nazi Germany.
Like the banker Hjalmar Schacht, Schmitt was cleared of war crimes by the
Nuremberg Tribunals.

      In effect, as documented in The Hitler Book, Schacht blackmailed the
Tribunal, by aggressively asserting that he was only acting on behalf of the
international financial establishment, represented by the Bank for
International Settlements, in his incarnation as a top Nazi official. If
backed against a wall, he threatened, he would provide evidence of the
international financial cabal behind the "Hitler project." Schacht was
acquitted, over the strenuous objections of both the American and Soviet

      In effect, the perpetrators of the Nazi Holocaust were brought to
justice at Nuremberg, while the architects of the larger Synarchist scheme,
like Schacht and Leo Strauss' mentor Carl Schmitt, were given a safe
conduct, and, through the efforts of postwar occupation figures like John J.
McCloy and Gen. William Draper, were vetted for future service.

      A final note: In 1955, Schmitt was corresponding with Kojève,
arranging for the Paris-based Russian emigré to address the Düsseldorf
industrialists' association-which had been a focal point of Franco-German
"Synarchist" collaboration between the Nazi and Vichy governments-and meet,
during that visit, with Schmitt's close friend Schacht.

      It was this Kojève who maintained the closest collaboration with Leo
Strauss, and who promoted his theories of purgative violence and universal
tyranny with such leading Strauss disciples as Allan Bloom (the mentor of
Deputy Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz) and Francis Fukuyama. This
Synarchist stew remains Vice President Dick Cheney's gang's "French

      -Al and Rachel Douglas, Katherine Kantor, Pierre and Irene Boudry,
Anton Chaitkin, Stephanie Ezrol, Helga Zepp-LaRouche, and Barbara Boyd
contributed vital research to this article.

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