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The United Nations Security Council members must hear your opposition to War on Iraq! Negotiations at the UN have reached a stalemate as members of the Security Council continue to disagree on a possible resolution. France and Russia have consistently opposed U.S. and UK desires for an automatic trigger resolution and continue the debate in the Security Council. White House spokesman Ari Fleischer has stated that the UN had a limited time to agree to U.S./UK proposals. While campaigning for congressional elections, President Bush stated, “If the United Nations can’t make its mind up, if Saddam Hussein won’t disarm, we will lead a coalition to disarm him for the sake of peace.” (BBC 10/23/02) Some observers question whether the U.S./UK draft can be realistically implemented or whether it is designed to create an environment that makes Iraqi compliance virtually impossible. After three days of negotiations at the UN (October 16-18), there is still no agreement on any new resolutions to 'toughen' inspections, or to authorize the use of force if/when Iraq fails to meet the requirements. Some reports indicate the US has backed off of demanding 'automaticity' in the resolution, i.e. an automatic invasion if Iraq trips up. Round three has begun. There is still time to take action and show solidarity with virtually all the countries of the world in opposing a unilateral US war against Iraq. Please read the background section below for the latest information on the debate on Bush's resolution at the UN. TAKE ACTION! Send faxes and e-mails to China, France, and the Russian Federation urging them to oppose any resolution authorizing the US to use military force against Iraq. If you have more time, contact the other active members of the Security Council as well (go to www.un.org , click on Main Bodies, then Security Council, then Members, then pick the nation). Keep the pressure up on Congress with calls, letters, faxes, e-mails, visits and sit-ins! Call five people you know and ask them to do the same, and to call five more people. Contacting Foreign Missions to the UN China, France and Russia are the permanent members of the UN Security Council that have expressed opposition to the US war resolution and have become an obstacle to the U.S. to take unilateral action against Iraq. For a resolution to pass the 15 member Security Council it requires a unanimous vote of the five permanent members plus 4 revolving members for a total of 9 votes. Therefore, any one permanent member has "veto" power. Fax and Email addresses for China, France and the Russian Federation are as follows: Ambassador Jean-David Levitte Permanent Representative of France to the UN FAX: (212) 421-6889 or (212) 355-2763 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Ambassador Wang Yingfan Permanent Representative of the People's Republic of China to the UN FAX: (212) 634-7626 E-mail:email@example.com Ambassador Sergei Lavrov Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the UN Fax: (212) 628-0252 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org You may also want to contact Denmark, currently heading the European Union: Permanent Representative of Denmark to the UN Fax: (212) 308-3384 E-mail: email@example.com Recommended statements: As an American citizen, I oppose war against Iraq and any unilateral action by the US against Iraq. Since Iraq has accepted the weapons inspectors unconditionally, please vote "No" on any UN resolution that authorizes the use of force. Please reaffirm the goal of lifting the UN sanctions that have brought so much suffering and death to the Iraqi people. Note: Try to keep your message concise. You can send a fax on line at the following site set up by Global Exchange: http://www.globalexchange.org/campaigns/iraq/StopWar101502.html Global Exchange is also encouraging everyone to hold press conferences, teach-ins and other events on United Nations Day, October 24th, focusing attention on international law and the role of the United Nations in stopping an unprovoked attack against Iraq. Good locations would be local court houses to emphasize that the US and the UN should respect the rule of law, not the rule of force. For more information about how to organize an event on October 24, email firstname.lastname@example.org Keeping Up the Pressure on Congress If your Congressional Representative and Senator(s) voted for the war resolution, continue to present the issue at events and their offices as follows: Attend their town meetings and campaign appearances and remind the audience of his or her vote with questions, literature, and demonstrations. Initiate and participate in demonstrations in front of their offices. Conduct sit-ins. Call in to the Capital Switchboard toll free NOW and all week to oppose the War Resolution at: 1-800-839-5276 (if jammed try: 202-225-3121) (For a listing of all Senate office phone numbers, go to: www.endthewar.org/Alerts/alertspecial4.htm ) October 26th: Get Out and Protest! Major anti-war protests are planned for Washington, DC, San Francisco, Denver, Seattle, Indianapolis, Fort Wayne, Terre Haute and other cities. Over 130 cities are sending buses to DC and San Francisico. To find out about buses leaving from your area, check the International ANSWER website at: http://www.internationalanswer.org. As we collect information about local protests, we will try and post them on our home page at www.endthewar.org BACKGROUND Congress Votes for War... Congress has voted to authorize the President to use force, to make war, against Iraq. It was us, concerned American citizens, who spoke up and ensured that the vote would take place in Congress. But Congressional leaders refused our demands for fair and balanced hearings, holding hearings that were instead dominated by hawks pushing hard for war. Despite the fact that the voices of opposition had to hold their own forums (such as Ohio Rep. Dennis Kucinich¹s alternative hearings, featuring former chief weapons inspector Scott Ritter and others), 156 votes were cast against the President¹s war resolution. It may not have been a victory; but given that the administration managed to co-opt the Democratic Party leadership into rushing the vote before the election, the fact that our calls and letters could help generate that much opposition in such a short time is nothing short of amazing. It signals the beginning, not the end of the struggle to prevent this war. Mr. Bush Takes his Resolution to the UN... Now the Bush Administration is pursuing a similar resolution at the UN. On Thursday, October 18th, the US backed away from its original resolution, which is welcome news. A draft of the US resolution submitted to the UN was leaked to the New York Times and published on October 2nd, giving critics a chance to critique it. Here are some reviwers' comments about the draft: [The draft says] "that Iraq shall provide... immediate, unconditional and unrestricted access to any and all areas, facilities... and any permanent member of the Security Council may request to be represented on any inspection team with the same right and protections...¹ This is one of several booby traps in the text to make sure that the Iraqis don't accept it... The text also says: "teams shall be accompanied at the bases by sufficient U.N. security forces...¹ What they are talking about is an an occupation arrangement, similar to demands made at Rambouillet on Yugoslavia. Since the government of Iraq will not accept that, Iraqi rejection will be used as a pretext for war." James Paul, Executive Director of Global Policy Forum "The resolution is just a pretext for war. No way Iraq, or any other state, could accept such a resolution." Francis Boyle, Professor of International Law, University of Illinois. "This is really just a blank check for an armed attack on Iraq." John Quigley, Professor of International Law at Ohio State University ...if the US Unilaterally attacks Iraq: Blame it all on France... For nearly a month, the debate at the UN has been limited to the five permanent members of the Security Council: Russia, China, Britain, France and the United States. After two days of debate on Wednesday and Thursday (October 16-17), one Security Council diplomat has already concluded that "It now all depends on Washington and Paris." France is proposing two resolutions: one to set out tough conditions for Iraq to cooperate with weapons inspectors and a second threatening force if those conditions are not met. The US ambassador to the UN, John Negroponte, has briefed President Bush that the majority of the 15 members of the Security Council oppose the US resolution. Thus on Thursday the Bush administration dropped language from the resolution that would give the US presumptive authority to determine if Iraq was cooperating sufficiently. The original wording approved the use of "all necessary means" against Iraq in the event of Iraqi violations of the inspections process. The new wording speaks vaguely of "serious consequences." The revised draft would leave it up to the UN Security Council to decide whether Iraq was in compliance, after hearing a report from weapons inspectors (a process that could take many months). The US has rejected the French proposal, however, that would leave it up to the Security Council to decide what action to take should Iraq fail to adhere to the language of the resolution. Nothing in the new US draft, however, would prevent the US from attacking Iraq after the Security Council began deliberating how to react to failed compliance by Iraq. And one US spokesman denied reports that the US was no longer seeking authority to use force against Iraq: "We have not and will not back away from one resolution, he said, "We want a resolution with full authority in the first and final resolution." If the US continues to push for UN authorization to wage war (a UN resolution that would directly violate the UN Charter), France may veto the resolution. If that happens, President Bush will be faced with the choice of standing down, or waging a unilateral and illegal (under international law) war against Iraq. On October 11th, French President Jacque Chirac told the Lebanese Parliament in Beirut: "Military action, the last option, is not a foregone conclusion." On October 16th, Chirac said France sought a resolution "in line with the interests of the region as we see them," and if that failed, France would "assume its responsibilities." This is probably a subtle threat that France may use its veto power to veto the US resolution. French Prime Minister Jean-Pierre Raffarin has been openly critical of Bush's resolution. Speaking before the French National Assembly on October 8th, Raffarin said "There is no such thing as a clean war or an easy war... Let us think of the civilians, let us think of the humanitarian consequences for the 24 million Iraqis who already undergo sufferings that are an affront to our conscience... The hypotheses surrounding a change of regime are marked by uncertianties, and France is not the only country to harbour very serious doubts on this subject." Rafarrin spoke of "¹those who develop the simplistic vision of good against evil.¹" He quoted French poet Rene Char: "¹Evil always come from further away than you realise, and may not die at the barricade you have chosen.¹" According to sources speaking to the Washington Post, President Bush feels that if no agreement can be reached at the UN, and war results, it would not be his fault: "The French will be responsible for it." Meanwhile, the Rest of the World Requests a Debate: Is the US Undermining the UN Charter? On October 13th, the Martin-Belinga-Eboutou of Cameroon, the country holding the Security Council Presidency for October, received a letter from South African Ambassador Dumisani Kumalo on behalf of the Non-Aligned Movement. The letter requests that "All member states and permanent observers of the United Nations should be afforded an opportunity to express their views on these important developments that directly affect the purposes and principles of the charter of the United Nations." "From the elements we have read about in the media, it seems as if the UN is being asked to declare war on Iraq," said Mr. Kumalo. "If that¹s true, it contradicts the very first paragraph of the UN Charter." The UN Charter opens with the line: "We the peoples of the United Nations determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind..." Article 39 of the Charter makes it clear that the UN Security Council (and not the United States) has the authority to decide what constitutes a breach of the peace and what is the appropriate response. It reads: "The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security." Article 51 of the Charter provides that nothing in the Charter "shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defence if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Nations, until the Security Council has taken measures to maintain international peace and security." But nowhere does the Charter provide for "pre-emptive" attacks, and it is clear that the Security Council is the sole authority within the UN for declaring war against other states. If the vote were put to the General Assembly, even the French proposal would not stand much of a chance of passing. Most states oppose any US attack on Iraq. SECURITY COUNCIL MEMBERS: CONTACT INFO AND STATEMENTS Position Statements Included (quotation marks added only where direct quotations are involved) For a full summary of statements made before the Security Council on behalf of Council Members and other nations, on Friday, October 18th, go to: http://www.reliefweb.int/w/rwb.nsf/UNID/85EE7A10CEA7 China Permanent Representative of the People's Republic of China to the United Nations Ambassador Wang Yingfan 350 East 35th Street, New York, N.Y. 10016 Telephone: (212) 655-6100, Telefax: (212) 634-7626 E-mail: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org Position Statement: Mr. Zhang Yishan told the Security Council last week that China favored a peaceful settlement under UN auspices. He said the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Iraq and other countries in the region should be respected. He was pleased with the unconditional acceptance of inspectors by Iraq. Other Chinese officials have expressed support for the French two-stage proposal, and China is expected to abstain on any vote authorizing the use of force. France Permanent Representative of France to the United Nations Ambassador Jean-David Levitte One Dag Hammarskjöld Plaza, 245 East 47th Street, 44th Floor New York, N.Y. 10017, Telephone: (212) 308-5700, Telefax: (212) 355-2763 E-mail: email@example.com Correspondence: French Position Statement: "France's position has been clearly expressed by its saying: No, there can be no automatic intervention." --French President Jacques Chirac Russian Federation Ambassador Sergei Lavrov Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations 136 East 67th Street, New York, N.Y. 10021 Telephone: (212) 861-4900/4901/4902, Telefax: (212) 628-0252 E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Position Statement: Russian President Vladimir Putin has made it clear that the case for military action against Iraq remains unconvincing: "Russia does not have in its possession any trustworthy data which would support the existence of nuclear weapons or any other weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and we have not received from our partners such information as yet," he said. Russia is also seeking assurances that Iraq's debt of $8 billion owing to Russia will still be payable after a US invasion. *** please circulate widely *** _________________________________________________________________ Get faster connections -- switch to MSN Internet Access! http://resourcecenter.msn.com/access/plans/default.asp _______________________________________________ Sent via the discussion list of the Campaign Against Sanctions on Iraq. To unsubscribe, visit http://lists.casi.org.uk/mailman/listinfo/casi-discuss To contact the list manager, email email@example.com All postings are archived on CASI's website: http://www.casi.org.uk