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Hi Joy, Chlorine is not on the new 1051 lists of "notifiable" items (see the Unmovic links to S/2001/560 at http://www.casi.org.uk/info/un.html#movic, in particular the chemical page: http://www.casi.org.uk/info/unmovic1051l010601/chemical.pdf; n.b. these are drafts - the final document is available on Unmovic's website in a format that's harder to read: see http://www.un.org/Depts/unmovic/documents/560.pdf). This means that chlorine's import is technically no more nor less difficult than the import of anything else that's not on the "green lists" established under Security Council Resolution 1284: a single dissenting opinion by any member of the Iraq Sanctions Committee will stop it. I've never heard of chlorine contracts being blocked. There was a brief discussion of chlorine on this list earlier in the year initiated by Tim Buckley. The following links to the archive present part of that discussion (in chronological order): http://www.casi.org.uk/discuss/2001/msg00434.html http://www.casi.org.uk/discuss/2001/msg00436.html http://www.casi.org.uk/discuss/2001/msg00439.html http://www.casi.org.uk/discuss/2001/msg00440.html In my contributions to that discussion, I set out most of what I know about this situation. I don't think that Unicef has responsibility for purchasing chlorine throughout the country. The usual arrangement is that UN agencies purchase for Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraqi government ministries for the rest of the country. For example, in the latest distribution plan (see http://www.un.org/Depts/oip/dp10/dp10toc.htm), the water and sanitation sector lists a number of sub-sectors, including the General Establishment for Water and Sewerage Requirements, an Iraqi government body (see http://www.un.org/Depts/oip/dp10/03-02.pdf); you will see that it's first contract listed involves chlorine gas. Yes, there is a ceiling on the funds that can be used to purchase chlorine. The distribution plans have budgetary features: they specify the quantity of money that can be spent on various sectors of the economy. The Iraqi government does over- and under- spend relative to the plans. Further, it is the body that chooses how to allocate the funds. Chlorine is only one input to water quality. Another that was stressed to me by NGO staff when I was in Baghdad last winter was trained staff. The individual who explained this to me pointed out that they could rehabilitate a water treatment plant so that the water leaving it met first world standards. Without the ability to trained staff, and pay them sufficiently to come to work, though, the equipment would be of limited use. Other obstacles include the actual distribution infrastructure (pipes leak, drawing in dirty water) and the absence of reliable electricity. Regarding holds and water, the latest Secretary-General's report (see http://www.un.org/Depts/oip/reports/S2001_919.pdf) explains that there have recently been sectoral reviews of holds, with particular attention paid to the water and sanitation sector. I don't know much about this process, but it's likely that holds in this area have "improved". Paragraphs 47 - 51 discuss the sector in more depth, noting holds on the water tankers, protective equipment for handling chlorine and mechanical and electrical equipment for water treatment plants. These are almost certainly US holds; I don't recall any discussion of them. I hope that this helps somewhat. Please do let us know what you find. Best wishes, Colin Rowat work | Room 406, Department of Economics | The University of Birmingham | Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK | 0121 414 3754 | 0121 414 7377 (fax) | firstname.lastname@example.org personal | 07768 056 984 (mobile) | 07092 378 517 (fax) | (707) 221 3672 (US fax) | email@example.com _________________________________________________________ Do You Yahoo!? Get your free @yahoo.com address at http://mail.yahoo.com -- ----------------------------------------------------------------------- This is a discussion list run by the Campaign Against Sanctions on Iraq For removal from list, email firstname.lastname@example.org CASI's website - www.casi.org.uk - includes an archive of all postings.